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Version 1. True/False 

Chapter 1

1. There are more species of insects than there are species of all other plants and animals combined. 

2. Relative to humans, insects can generally better tolerate higher temperatures than they can lower temperatures. Many insects can withstand freezing temperatures. The fact that insects in general cannot    tolerate high temperatures is why high temperature are commonly used to control many types of insect pests. 

Chapter 2

3.  Moisture control is of extreme importance in the control of millipedes, centipedes and pillbugs. These arthropods normally live in moist conditions.

4. Sowbugs and pillbugs are crustaceans and lack the waxy layer around their body, thus are more susceptible to water loss than insects. 

Chapter 3

5. A clean properly landscaped yard will help in keeping scorpion off a property.  Any wood, rocks, bricks, old appliances, and other excess material should be eliminated. Landscaping should be kept at a minimum.  Trees, rock, shrubs, railroad ties, stone o block wall are all attractive to scorpions.

 6. Scorpions are readily attracted to lights. As a result if scorpions are a problem on a property, changing lighting around the structure will be of value.

 7. Daddy longleg spiders spin untidy webs that are readily abandoned if they become dirty.  When webs are abandoned, the spiders immediately spin new webbing, thus accounting for the large amount of webs that can be found in a home with relatively few spiders. 

Chapter 4

8. The venom of a black widow is a neurotoxin and ounce for ounce is more toxic than that in a rattle snake. 

 9. The egg sacs of both the black widow and the brown widow are very similar in appearance and are difficult to identify from each other.

10. Brown Recluse spiders prefer cracks and crevice often in location where pest control practices cannot reach

11. Most spider experts feel that the brown recluse or violin spider  does not occur in California any more.

Chapter 5

12. House dust mites are not visible to the naked eye and can be found in peoples’ beds.

13. Delusory parasitosis is a paranoia, or irrational fear, of small creepy non-existent creatures.

14. Scabies is nearly always acquired by skin-to-skin contact with an infested individual.

15. House dust mites feed on dander and can cause allergic reactions in humans. They cannot be seen with the naked eye.

16. The main biological control agent of phytophagus mites is a predatory mite. These can easily be distinguished from the plant feeding mites by the fact that they move much slower than their prey.

Chapter 6

17.  Body lice mainly lay their eggs on body hairs and can cause a condition referred to as Vagabonds’ disease.

18. One symptom of crab lice is blue spots on the skin.

19. Crab lice, Pthirus pubis, also known as pubic lice, attack humans and a few species of gorillas.

Chapter 7.

20. Silverfish feed primarily on starchy material such as paper, glue and similar materials.

21. The European earwig is the main species of earwig found in California yards and feeds mainly on plant material.

22. Most springtails mainly feed on decaying vegetation, are found in the soil and require high moisture for survival. As a result moisture control is a critical factor in the control of these insects.

Chapter 8.

23. Adult dragonflies are important predatory feeding on flying insects such as mosquitoes.

Chapter 9

24. . The alates of subterranean termites are typically black in color.

25. The alates of drywood termites are red in color.

26. Symptoms of drywood termites include wings, expelled fecal pellets and mud tubes.

27.Tent fumigation and heat treatment are effective control measure for subterranean termites.

Chapter 10.

28. Positively thigmotactic refers to a cockroach’s tendency to hide with a surface touching the top and bottom of their body and this behavior is integral to their control.

29. The distribution of the German cockroach in the home has changed in the past decades mainly due to changes in human behavior, more small appliances and home construction.

30. Cockroaches are very omnivorous and have even been found feeding under the toenails and fingernails of patients confined to hospital beds.  In some ocean freighters, the roach populations are so large that crew-members sometimes wear socks and gloves to bed to prevent cockroaches from feeding underneath their fingernails and toenails.

Chapter 11.

31. During non-swarming periods desert locusts are usually restricted to the semi-arid and arid deserts of Africa, the Near East and South-West Asia that receive less than 10 inches of rain annually. This areas comprises about 16 million square kilometers, consisting of about 30 countries.

32. During plagues, desert locusts may spread over an enormous area (up to 29 million square kilometers) extending over or into parts of 60 countries. This is more than 20% of the total land surface of the world. During plagues, this locust has the potential to damage the livelihood of 10% of the world's population.LV spraying is used for locust control.  It is unique, in that 'technical,' or undiluted Malathion is sprayed at the rate of one-to-two ounces per acre.

33.. The release of praying mantids for control of a variety of insects is considered a valuable biological control technique.

Chapter 12. True Bugs.

34. Bed bugs are attracted to CO2 produced by our breathing and our body heat.

35. Based on modern studies on average starved bedbugs (at any life stage) held at room temperature will die within 100 days.

36. Under favorable conditions, each female bedbugs lays 100 to 500 eggs at a rate of between 1- 7 eggs per day for about 10 days and then requires a blood meal. . 

37. Although bed bugs normally venture out to feed in the early morning hours, they occasionally feed at other times if given the opportunity and have been observed active during all periods of the day. Typically only when bed bugs are starved will they feed during daylight hours.

38. Bed bugs are capable of detecting the presence of a host detect these host cues over considerable distance distances (about 15 feet away for CO2 and more or less for heat).

39. Cracks or crevices the widths of a credit card are too thin for bedbugs to hide within.

40. As bed bug droppings are black or nearly black in color and often will often appear as dots or specks that are similar in appearance to a dried drop of ink. The feces are digested blood.

41. Once bed bugs become established, any control effort that does not include concurrent inspection of all units in a multiunit facility, together with a coordinated program of treatment and occupant education, is usually doomed to fail.

42. Bed bugs are relatively small and flat and as a result they have a relatively large area where water can evaporate from their body and subsequently are quite susceptible to dehydration.

43. Silica gel, boric acid, and diatomaceous earth will provide long-term control, provided they are used in an environment with low humidity.

44. The use of cold to kill bedbugs is generally less effective and practical than the use of heat.

Chapter 13. Aphids, Leafhoppers.

45. Honeydew is basically partially digested plant sap that is produced by a variety of homopterous insects.

46. Ants benefit from feeding on honeydew and in turn protects the honeydew producers from would be predators and parasites.

47. The problem with honeydew is that it accumulates on leaves and serves as a medium (food) for black sooty mold. The presence of the black mold cuts down on photosynthesis and is unsightly.

Chapter 14. Beetles

 48. Over one-third of agricultural insecticides used in the United States are used to control the Japanese beetle.

 49.. The release of convergent ladybird beetles is a very effective means of controlling aphids.

 50.. The convergent ladybird beetle overwinters in mountainous areas in the larval stage.

 51. Cedar has oils that will repel skin or dermestid beetles; however, with age (a few year) the oils in cedar chest appear to lose their repellency. As a result cedar chests older than a few years is no a reliable means of protecting stored garments            from the attack of skin beetle (dermestid beetles).

 53. Powderpost beetles are typically not capable of infesting lumber that is finished with varnish, paint or even fine sanding in some cases

 54. On occasion adult buprestids do emerge from the walls and other wooden structures in the home.  Invariably these are surviving larvae that have completed their development and “were built into the house”. 

 55. One of the more common long horned beetles that is found completing its development in lumber from infested trees is the new house borer.  This species is capable of reinfesting structures.

 56. The bacterium that causes bacterial wilt overwinters in the gut of some of the striped cucumber beetles. When beetles become active in the spring and begin feeding, they spread the bacterium either through their feces or from contaminated    mouthparts.

  Chapter 15.

57. The corn earworm, tomato fruitworm and cotton bollworm all belong to the same species.

58. With the corn earworm rarely are there more than 1 or 2 later instar larvae found in an ear of corn. This is due to the fact that older larvae become aggressive and cannibalistic. 

59. The pink bollworm overwinters as a fully developed larva (fourth instar). During this period the pink bollworm is in a state of arrested development called diapause.

Chapter 16.

60. Green lacewings lay their eggs on thin long stalks

61. All Neuroptera are predatory in either the larval or adult stages or both. .

  Chapter 17. Bees 

62. Attacks by Africanized bees are rare in Southern California. Actually most cases of serious African bee attack occur on dogs and other animal.

63. In order to avoid establishment of Africanized beest the standard procedure of bee keepers once they run across an overly aggressive colony is to replace the queen or in some cased destroy the colony.

64. When treating for an established colony of Africanized bee the first step is caution and safety. 

65. Bees (including Africanized bees ) are easily immobilized and killed by wetting agents (surfactants) - including commercial liquid dishwashing detergent.

Chapter 18

 66. Bumble bees are wild bees and vigorously protect their colonies. The sting from these insects are much more painful than that of a honeybee. Also unlike the honeybee their sting is not barbed and they can sting repeatedly.

 67. Some colonies of army ants may number as high as one million individuals. Because of the spectacular size of their colonies and ‘raiding’ nature of these insects, they have been used repeatedly by the motion picture industry. Actually army           ants pose no threat to humans or other large animals.

 68. Argentine ants have been reported to build supercolonies.  For example the "Californian large" colony, stretches 900 km (560 mi) along the coast of California

 69. Harvester ants feed mainly on seeds.

 70.  Paper wasps, hornets and yellow jackets have similar a biology and overwinter as a queen in protected locations.

 71. Honey ants store excess honeydew in adult ants called repletes. These individuals swell up to many times their normal size when doing so.

 72. Paper wasp nests are multilayered.

 73. Proper identification of the ant species involved is helpful in locating the nest, entry points and signs of the infestation

 74.  Baits are the only effective method of control or elimination for the Pharaoh ant.

 75. Fast-acting residual insecticides should not generally be used in Pharaoh ants control because this results in colony budding (formation of new nests).

76. The larval or maggot stage of blowflies mainly feeds on meat.

Chapter 19.

 77.  Housefly maggots chiefly feed in decaying carcasses.

 78 .Mosquito larvae are referred to as wrigglers and are filter feeders feeding on small organisms in the water.

 79. Blowflies occasionally attack living animals (myiasis). In most cases, the fly deposits her eggs (called a hit) and the hatching larvae feed chiefly on the decaying tissue associated with wounds.

 80. DDT was used to attempt to erradicate malarias from the world.

 8i.Cattle grubs can be controlled with systemic insecticides which are absorbed through the skin and move internally throughout the body eventually reaching the migrating larvae.

 82. Blowfly larvae are meat feeders. 

 83 Male mosquitoes chiefly feed on blood.

Chapter 20.

 84. The salt and pepper effect \refers to the eggs and feces of adult fleas.

 85. Larvae of the cat fleas are scavengers and feed on a variety of material including the feces and loose skin of the adult flea.

 86. The dog flea is the most common species of fleas found on dogs and cats in Southern California.124.Once emerged from the pupae the adult fleas can live for months without feeding.

 87.. Cat fleas are more attracted to dogs and cats than humans.

 88. The human flea is the most common flea found in farmyards and tends to concentrate its bite all over the body while the cat flea typically bites around the ankles.

 89. The insecticide Advantage works primarily by preventing the production of chitin in its eggs which subsequently do not hatch

 90. After they are laid flea eggs mostly drop off the host.

 91. IGRs (insect growth regulators) are an effective means of killing flea adults.

Version 2. True False

 

Chapter 1.

1. There are more species of insects than there are species of all other plants and animals combined. 

2. Relative to humans, insects can generally better tolerate higher temperatures than they can lower temperatures. Many insects can withstand freezing temperatures. The fact that insects in general cannot    tolerate high temperatures is why high temperature are commonly used to control many types of insect pests. 

Chapter 2.

3. Sow bugs and pill bugs are crustaceans and lack the waxy layer around their body, thus are more susceptible to water loss than insects. 

4. Success of these treatment with water based pyrethroids for millipeded and centipede control may depend of sufficient amounts of water in the spray application to insure penetration of mulch and other organic matter where this pest are normally found.

Chapter 3.

5. Scorpions are readily attracted to lights. As a result if scorpions are a problem on a property changing lighting around the structure will be of value.

6.  A clean properly landscaped yard will help in keeping scorpion off a property.  Any wood, rocks, bricks, old appliances, and other excess material should be eliminated. Landscaping should be kept at a minimum.  Trees, rock, shrubs, railroad ties, stone o block wall are all attractive to scorpions.

7. As far as lighting is concerned insects (in the order of occurrence) are most attracted to yellow bug light, sodium vapor white light and ultra violet light. 

Chapter 4

8. The egg sacs of both the black widow and the brown widow are very similar in appearance and are difficult to identify from each other.

9. The most common situation in California where black widow bites occur is when someone sits on an outdoor (e.g. camping) toilet seat, especially in the springtime when the female guards her egg sac. 

10. A black widow spider web is characterized as being asymmetrical, strong and typically occurs in dark, humid locations where there is an abundance of food. 

11. Most spider experts feel that the brown recluse or violin spider for all intent and purposes does not occur in California any more.

Chapter 5

12. Scabies is nearly always acquired by skin-to-skin contact with an infested individual.

 13. The main biological control agent of phytophagus mites is a predatory mite. These can easily be distinguished from the plant feeding mites by the fact that they move much slower than their prey.

 14. Delusory parasitosis is a paranoia, or irrational fear, of small creepy non-existent creatures.

Chapter 6.

 15.. Crab lice are primarily spread by sexual contact and are rarely found off the host.

 16.  Body lice mainly lay their eggs on body hairs and can cause a condition referred to as Vagabonds’ disease.

 17. Crab lice, Pthirus pubis, also known as pubic lice, attack humans and a few species of gorillas.

 18 . One symptom of crab lice is blue spots on the skin.

Chapter 7.

20. The European earwig is the main species of earwig found in California yards and feeds mainly on plant material.

21. Most springtails mainly feed on decaying vegetation, are found in the soil and require high moisture for survival. As a result moisture control is a critical factor in the control of these insects.

Chapter 8.

23. Adult dragonflies are important predatory feeding on flying insects such as mosquitoes.

24. Adult dragonflies are one of the few types of insects that show a degree of territoriality.

Chapter 9.

25. The alates of subterranean termites are typically black in color.

26. Tent fumigation and heat treatment are effective control measure for subterranean termites.

27. The alates of drywood termites are red in color.

28.  Symptoms of drywood termites include wings, expelled fecal pellets and mud tubes.

29 .Tent fumigation and heat treatment are effective control measure for subterranean termites.

30. The alates of subterranean termites are typically black in color.

Chapter 10.

31. Positively thigmotactic refers to a cockroach’s tendency to hide with a surface touching the top and bottom of their body and this behavior is integral to their control.

32. The brown banded cockroach has the highest reproductive capacity of the common domestic roaches in California. Of the 4 most common domestic roaches found in the US the Oriental cockroach has the lowest reproductive capacity.

33. The distribution of the German cockroach in the home has changed in the past decades mainly due to changes in human behavior, more small appliances and home construction.

34. Many of the newer baits that are used for roach control are very slow acting and once consumed may take a few days to kill. Their use may result in what is referred to as the domino effect.

Chapter 11.

35. The California Department of Agriculture has a strict quarantine on raising or possessing walking stick from foreign countries

36. During plagues, desert locusts may spread over an enormous area (up to 29 million square kilometers) extending over or into parts of 60 countries. This is more than 20% of the total land surface of        the world. During plagues, this locust has the potential to damage the livelihood of 10% of the world's population.LV spraying is used for locust control.  It is unique, in that 'technical,' or undiluted Malathion is sprayed at the rate of one-to-two ounces per acre.

37. The use of ULV spraying for locust control is referred to as Green Muscle and in Australia as Green Guard.

Chapter 12. True Bugs.

38. Bed bugs are attracted to CO2 produced by our breathing and our body heat.

39. Silica gel, boric acid, and diatomaceous earth will provide long-term control, provided they are used in an environment with low humidity.

40. A fairly large percentage of people the bite of bed bugs cannot be felt until minutes, hours or even later with the first indication of a bite usually occurring from the desire to scratch the area. .

41. Bed bugs are capable of detecting the presence of a host detect these host cues over considerable distance distances (about 15 feet away for CO2 and more or less for heat).

42. Based on modern studies on average starved bedbugs (at any life stage) held at room temperature will die within 100 days.

43. The use of cold to kill bedbugs is generally less effective and practical than the use of heat.

44. Cracks or crevices the widths of a credit card or smaller are too thin for bedbugs to hide within

45. Under favorable conditions, each female lays 100 to 500 eggs at a rate of between 1- 7 eggs per day for about 10 days. 

46. Although bed bugs normally venture out to feed in the early morning hours, they occasionally feed at other times if given the opportunity and have been observed active during all periods of the day. Typically only when bed bugs are starved will they feed during daylight hours.

47. As bed bug droppings are black or nearly black in color and often will often appear as dots or specks that are similar in appearance to a dried drop of ink. The feces are digested blood.

48. Insecticides currently labeled for ULV, aerosols and foggers have little or no residual effects on bedbugs. Most will seldom penetrate cryptic bedbug harborages. If directly injected into harborages, these products may stimulate some bedbugs to become active and move out into the open, allowing them to be more readily seen. Otherwise, bedbugs are seldom killed, even by prolonged or repeated exposure to such products as those currently EPA-labeled in the U.S.

Chapter 13. Aphids, Leafhoppers.

49. Ants benefit from feeding on honeydew and in turn protects the honeydew produces from would be predators and parasites.

50. Honeydew is basically partially digested plant sap that is produced by a variety of homopterous insects.

Chapter 14.

51. Over one-third of agricultural insecticides used in the United States are used to control the Japanese beetle.

52. The release of convergent ladybird beetles is a very effective means of controlling aphids. 

53. Cedar has oils that will repel these beetles; however, with age (a few year) the oils in cedar chest appear to lose their repellency. As a result cedar chests older than a few years is no a reliable means of protecting stored garments from the attack of skin beetle (demisted beetles).    

54. Commercial air flights (both cargo and passenger) that come to California and other western states from the east are checked during the summer months for adult beetles. Traps baited with    pheromone-like chemicals that are attractive to adults are placed around the state in the hope that should this beetle become established in an isolated location, its presence would quickly be discovered.

55. Methods for pest control for wireworms (click beetle larvae) include crop rotation and clearing the land of insects before sowing. Crop rotation relies on the fact that most species are host specific and long lived.

56. On occasion adult buprestids do emerge from the walls and other wooden structures in the home.  Invariably these are surviving larvae that have completed their development and “were built into the house”. 

57. The adults flea beetles are quite active and readily feed on the leaves of a variety of plants (including crops), with typical damage consisting of small holes.

 58. At manufacturing locations or lumber yards where is wood stored for any length of time, periodic inspections are essential, especially since visible signs of powderpost beetle damage are not detectable for months if not years following an initial infestation.  

 59. Powderpost beetles are typically not capable of infesting lumber that is finished with varnish, paint or even fine sanding in some cases.

 60.  The bacterium that causes bacterial wilt overwinters in the gut of some of the striped cucumber beetles. When beetles become active in the spring and begin feeding, they spread the bacterium either through their feces or from contaminated mouthparts.

 61. One of the more common long horned beetles that is found completing its development in lumber from infested trees is the new house borer.  This species is capable of reinfesting structures.

62. The Colorado potato beetle is one of the exceptions to the generalization that almost all our major agricultural pests are those that have been introduced from other countries. 

Chapter 15.

 63. Mere contact with the saddleback moth can result in cause swelling, nausea, and leave a rash that can last for days.

 64. The corn earworm, tomato fruitworm and cotton bollworm all belong to the same species, namely Heloithis zea.

 65.  With the corn earworm rarely are more than 1 or 2 later instar larvae found in an ear of corn due to the fact that older larvae become aggressive and cannibalistic. A synthetic version of its sex pheromone (codlemone) is now commercially available for the cabbage looper.

66. The pink bollworm overwinters as a fully developed larva (fourth instar). During this period the pink bollworm is in a state of arrested development called diapause.

67. Bart Knols, an entomologist who chairs the advisory board of the Dutch Malarial Foundation and edits the malarial website Malarial World. Claims that there is no scientific evidence what so ever that ultrasound repels mosquitoes.

Chapter 16.  

Chapter 17.

68. Attacks by Africanized bees are rare in Southern California. Actually most cases of serious African bee attack occur on dogs and other animal.

69. In order to avoid establishment of Africanized bees he standard procedure of bee keepers once they run across an overly aggressive colony is to replace the queen or in some cased destroy the colony.

70. The Africanized bee is the same species as the common honeybee.

71. When the distribution of the Africanized honey bee and the common honey bee overlap the former can outcompete and replace the latter.

72. Bees (including Africanized bees) are easily immobilized and killed by wetting agents (surfactants) - including commercial liquid dishwashing detergent.

Chapter 18.  Bees, Wasps

73. Fumigants are readily available in most states for red imported fire ant control. These are usually more effective than surface applications or mound drenches but are also more expensive and can be dangerous if not handled properly.

74. Paper wasp nests are multilayered.

75. Some colonies of army ants may number as high as one million individuals. Because of the spectacular size of their colonies and ‘raiding’ nature of these insects, they have been used repeatedly by the motion picture industry. Actually army ants pose no threat to humans or other large animals.  

76.  Baits are the only effective method of control or elimination for the Pharaoh ant.

77. Honey ants store excess honeydew in adult ants called repletes. These individuals swell up to many times their normal size when doing so.

78. Fast-acting residual insecticides should not generally be used in Pharaoh ants control because this results in colony budding (formation of new nests).

79 Carpenter ant nest are difficult if not very difficult to find since most species of these ant occur outdoors.

Chapter 20.

80. Housefly maggots chiefly feed in decaying carcasses.

81. Mosquito larvae are referred to as tumblers and are filter feeders feeding on small organisms in the water.

82. Blowflies occasionally attack living animals (myiasis). In most cases, the fly deposits her eggs (called a hit) and the hatching larvae feed chiefly on the decaying tissue associated with wounds.

83. Cattle grubs can be controlled with systemic insecticides which are absorbed through the skin and move internally throughout the body eventually reaching the migrating larvae.

 Chapter 20.

84. Once emerged from the pupae the adult fleas can live for months without feeding.

85. The dog flea is the most common species of fleas found on dogs and cats in Southern California.

86. The salt and pepper effect \refers to the eggs and feces of adult fleas.

87. Larvae of the cat fleas are scavengers and feed on a variety of material including the feces and loose skin of the adult flea.

88. Once emerged from the pupae the adult fleas can live for months without feeding.

89. The human flea is the most common flea found in farmyards and tends to concentrate its bite all over the body while the cat flea typically bites around the ankles.

90. After they are laid flea eggs mostly drop off the host.

91 .IGRs are an effective means of killing flea adults.

92. The insecticide Advantage works primarily by preventing the production of chitin in its eggs which subsequently do not hatch

 

 

 
 
 
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